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1.6. Glossary

Angle of Arrival, using antennas with direction characteristics.
Augmented Reality:
is a field of computer research which deals with the combination of real world and computer generated data. At present, most AR research is concerned with the use of live video imagery which is digitally processed and "augmented" by the addition of computer generated graphics. Advanced research includes the use of motion tracking data, fiducial marker recognition using machine vision, and the construction of controlled environments containing any number of sensors and actuators.
A wireless technology developed by Ericsson, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba that specifies how mobile phones, computers and PDAs interconnect with each other, with computers, and with office or home phones. The technology enables data connections between electronic devices in the 2.4 GHz range. Bluetooth would replace cable or infrared connections for such devices
When you download a web page or an image, the data is "cached," meaning it is temporarily stored on your computer. Thus the next time the page or image is just accessed from the cache, instead of requesting the file from the web server, so it loads quickly.
Identifier of the neares base station in a wireless network.
Communication Network:
These LBS component transfers the user data and service request from the mobile terminal to the service provider and then the requested information back to the user.
Data and Content Provider:
Service providers will usually not store and maintain all the information which can be requested by users. Therefore geographic base data and location information data will be usually requested from the maintaining authority (e.g. mapping agencies) or business and industry partners (e.g. yellow pages, traffic companies)
Direction of Arrival, using antennas with direction characteristics.
Enhanced Observed Time Difference, calculation of the distance to three base stations by measuring the signal runtime.
Global Positioning System, based on data transmitted from a constellation of 24 satellites. At least 4 sattelites have to be in range for correct positioning by measuring the signal runtime from the sattelites to the device.
Liquid Crystal Display, LCDs utilize two sheets of polarizing material with a liquid crystal solution between them. An electric current passed through the liquid, causes the crystals to align so that light cannot pass through them. Each crystal, therefore, is like a shutter, either allowing light to pass through or blocking the light.
Mobile Devices:
A tool for the user to request the needed information. The results can be given by speech, using pictures, text and so on. Possible devices are PDA's, Mobile Phones, Laptops, ... but the device can also be a navigation unit of car or a toll box for road pricing in a truck.
Mobile User:
Who or what is mobile? The mobile object can be a person or a device like a car navigation system (2004).
Personal Digital Assistant, also known as Handheld Computer, Personal Information Manager (PIM),or Pocket Computer. A small, handheld device capable of storing appointments, adresses, documents, messages. PDAs can also function as a cellular phone, e-mail device, Web browser and personal organizer. Unlike portable computers, most PDAs began as pen-based devices that used a stylus rather than a keyboard for input. Many PDAs subsequently incorporate handwriting recognition features.
Point of Interest
Positioning Component:
For the request of LBS the user position has to be determined. Here one distinguishes between tracking (a network determines your position) and positioning (position self evaluation). Usually the user position is obtained either by using the mobile communication network or by using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Further possibilities to determine the position are local networks like Bluetooth or WLAN, active badges or radio beacons. The latter positioning methods can especially used for indoor navigation like in a museum. If the position is not determined automatically it can be also specified manually by the user.
Pull Service:
The user asks actively for information or assistance.
Push Service:
That the information is delivered without asking to the LBS user.
Radio Frequency Identification, An RFID tag is a transponder generally containing a antenna and a silicon chip containing information such as a uniquely identifying serial number. Thus it can serve as a radio beacon.
Service Accuracy:
The accuracy of the positioning method.
Service and Application Provider:
The service provider offers a number of different services to the user and is responsible for the service request processing. Such services can be the calculation of the position in a more global context, to find a route, to search the yellow pages with respect to position, find information on a specific object of user interest (e.g. a bird in wild life park) and so forth.
Service Delivery:
The way how information from a LBS is retrieved or delivered to the user.
Service Environment:
The environment in which a LBS is usually used
Super Twisted Nematic. Viewing range 180°. Most common LCD type. The wide viewing range and high contrast makes it a good choice for many applications. Commonly available as very dark blue on yellow/green or grey background. As it is made in volume, cost is comparable to lesser types in all except highest volume.
How are service requests and data transferred between user and service provider? Where are the data stored? Which services are provided? Which positioning technology is used? and others..
Thin-Film Transistor, technology for active-matrix screens in laptops, PDAs and cell phones. TFTs are composed of a matrix of pixels. The thin-film transistors act as switches for turning the pixels of the screen individually on and off.
Time of Arrival, knowing the speed and the time difference between sending and receiving the distance can be computed.
User Interface:
Is a person using a PDA or mobile phone or something else? How can the user or (navigation) system formulate the needs and specify them later if needed?
How is the information, returned from LBS, communicated to the user? Speech, text, pictures, pictograms, maps, lists,..

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